Summer cocktails on the porch: a margarita, blackberry Moscow mule, tequila sunrise and basil mojito. Credit: Rose Winer

How often does this happen to you? You’re looking in a kitchen cabinet when you stumble upon a random bottle of liquor you have no idea how to use. Or you’ve invited friends over and want to replace the usual wine with fabulous cocktails, but need some inspiration.

Maybe neither of these cases describes you because you’re a cocktail guru famed for your mixology expertise. No matter what, you’ll find life made easier by the cocktail apps below. With hundreds of recipes, virtual “liquor cabinets” and many more handy functions, these apps will place the bartending knowledge you desire at your fingertips.

Mixology

Basics: Mixology is the best option for anyone seeking a variety of functions on a simple interface. The app offers thousands of recipes that are searchable by category or ingredient.

Cool features: The “Cabinet” function enables you to check off liquors, mixers and garnishes that you have on hand and suggests drinks you can make with them. Mixology even locates nearby liquor stores for your shopping needs, and local bars if you want someone else to prepare the drinks. Finally, the app has bartending tips and tricks for beginners, and displays user ratings for each drink.

Systems: iOS, Android

Cost: Free.

Upgrade: Pay $0.99/$1.49 (iOS/Android) for “Mixologist,” which will allow you to store custom cocktail mixes.

Liquor Cabinet

Basics: Liquor Cabinet is a visually engaging app created to build recipes from the ingredients you have on hand. It has a substantial drink database searchable by category, ingredient or occasion, such as “Brunch” or “Holidays.”

Cool features: What makes Liquor Cabinet stand out is its whimsical “Cabinet” function. While “Cabinet” on apps like Mixology are basically checklists, this version enables you to virtually stock a wood-paneled bar with items you have so ingredients literally take shape, making them easily viewable. Select certain items and they are “mixed” into different recipes. Liquor Cabinet also provides a “bar napkin” so you can make notes, and lets you save Favorites. It tells you what drinks are a few ingredients away based on your Cabinet and tallies needed items on a shopping list. If you want help devising various drinks for what’s on hand — including that mystery bottle — then Liquor Cabinet is for you.

System: iOS

Cost: $0.99

Speakeasy Cocktails

Basics: Speakeasy Cocktails is worth the investment for those who seek to immerse themselves in the art of mixology. It was created by Jim Meehan and Joseph Schwartz of the NYC speakeasies PDT and Little Branch, respectively.

Cool features: The app features 200 recipes, hours of video tutorials and quality photos on a beautifully smooth interface. The app divides its wealth of information into digestible “Chapters” on various topics: gear, techniques, liquors and mixers, recipes, and a history of the speakeasy. The recipes are easy to follow and define every drink ingredient and bartending term you’ll ever come across. If you’re looking to get into more serious cocktailing, this app is the perfect tool.

Format: e-book available for iPhone, iPad

Cost: $9.99

 

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The many features offered by Mixology.

Bartender’s Choice

Basics: Bartender’s Choice is perfect for those who want a professionally curated cocktail library without Speakeasy’s price tag. Created by Sam Ross of NYC’s Milk & Honey, this app affords you the expertise of a speakeasy bartender. Select choices for Alcohol, Sensation, Style and Extra, and it produces suggestions from its high-quality library of more than 400 cocktails, each featuring a well-crafted photo and brief drink history.

Cool feature: Though missing a “Cabinet” and in-depth tutorials, Bartender’s Choice includes “Minor Details,” which provides basic tips and definitions. Delivered on an interface evoking the spirit of a speakeasy, this app will have you reaching eagerly for your mixer.

System: iOS

Cost: $2.99

Drinks and Cocktails

Basics: If you’re a mixology novice or just want a straightforward app, then settle down with Drinks and Cocktails. This app sheds “Cabinet,” GPS and tutorial functions to focus on providing easy recipes. The recipes omit bartender jargon while keeping basic practical tips such as what a “highball glass” looks like.

Cool feature: It offers several hundred drinks that can be narrowed down by category or ingredient, browsed on a user-friendly scroll wheel and saved to Favorites.

System: iOS

Cost: Free

Cocktail Flow

Basics: Cocktail Flow has a more limited library but a more fun interface than others on this list. The app has the typical offerings of “Cabinet,” bartending basics and easy instructions.

Cool features: Three features make it stand apart: It budgets your cocktail shopping list based on drinks you like, offers nonalcoholic drink recipes and has a tropical theme that makes you feel like you’re mixing in a tiki bar.

Systems: iOS, Android

Cost: Free.

Upgrade: $0.99 for additional themes and recipes, although developers promise more free recipes in future upgrades.

Main photo: Summer cocktails on the porch — a margarita, blackberry Moscow mule, tequila sunrise and basil mojito. Credit: Rose Winer

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A peach salad with strawberries, burrata, Thai basil and mint. Credit: Brooke Jackson

With skin as soft as a horse’s muzzle, the bins of peaches beg to be caressed. Their heady perfume is as fragrant as a warm July afternoon and their presence indicates we are deep in summer. Varieties with names such as Gold Dust and Honey Babe conjure visions of romance, even though referring to a mere fruit. But I guess that’s the beauty of a good peach — consumers wax poetic on what makes one perfect and get downright opinionated about their favorites.

The season for juicy, sweet peaches is upon us, but it won’t last long. How to get more of these fuzzy, addictive orbs into your life was a question I pondered recently. When you get tired of eating them out of hand as your daily fruit, consider trying some of the following ideas.

Peach salads

By now, everyone has had their fill of Caprese salad, so mix it up by using peaches and strawberries in place of tomatoes. Halve and pit 4 barely soft peaches then cut each half into ¼-inch thick slices. Thickly slice 1 pint of strawberries. Arrange the peach slices on a large platter and scatter the strawberries over them. Put 2 burrata balls in the center, and shower the salad with chopped Thai basil and mint. Drizzle with extra virgin olive oil. As you plate each serving, pull the burrata balls apart and distribute pieces evenly among the plates. Serves 6 to 8.

Another peach salad idea would be to halve and pit 3 peaches and stuff the cavities with a chunk of goat cheese. Wrap each peach half with a thin slice of prosciutto and secure with a toothpick. Dab with a little honey. Grill over a medium-hot flame until the prosciutto is crisp and the cheese is melty. Serve each half on a bed of dressed salad greens or eat alongside a grilled pork chop, sausage or barbecued chicken thigh.

To serve with main courses

Make a salsa using 1 cup firm peeled, pitted and diced peaches; 1 teaspoon jalapeno; 2 tablespoons chopped cilantro; juice of ½ lime; kernels from one ear of corn; and a pinch of salt. Mix and set aside. Serve a big scoop with grilled or roasted halibut or swordfish.

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Peach halves stuffed with goat cheese and wrapped with prosciutto. Credit: Brooke Jackson

Cook up a chutney by combining 1½ cups peeled, pitted and chopped peaches; 1 cup peeled, pitted and chopped plums; ¼ cup raisins; a 2-inch piece of ginger, peeled and minced; 2 minced garlic cloves; ½ cup chopped sweet onion; ½ teaspoon allspice; ½ teaspoon cloves; 1/8 teaspoon cayenne; ½ cup brown sugar; and ½ cup cider vinegar in a non-reactive saucepan. Bring to a boil over high heat then reduce to a simmer and cook until thickened, about 45 minutes. Serve alongside grilled tandoori chicken or pork tenderloin. Leftover chutney will last in the fridge for one week.

Cocktail

The Bellini is a marvelous invention of the Venetians. Traditionally using white peaches and Prosecco, it is the perfect summertime refresher. It’s easy to make — first peel and pit 3 to 4 white peaches. Puree them in the blender — you need ½ cup puree — with juice from ½ a lemon, then strain (or not if you like your cocktails with texture). Divide between 2 champagne flutes then stir 1 ounce of peach brandy into each glass and fill with Prosecco. Garnish with a fresh raspberry and mint sprig.

Desserts

At this point in the summer, we’ve all had peach pie and cobbler and maybe even shortcake. Here are a couple of easier takes on peach desserts:

Slice a ripe, juicy peach into a long-stemmed wine or compote glass. Splash some Chambord over the peach, top with a dollop of mascarpone and sprinkle on some chopped, toasted pistachios.

Preheat oven to 400 F. Halve and pit 2 peaches and set in a baking dish. Crush 10 amaretti cookies into coarse crumbs. Combine with 1 tablespoon softened butter; ½ teaspoon almond extract; 1 tablespoon toasted, slivered almonds; ¼ teaspoon cinnamon; and a pinch of salt. Mound the crumb mixture into each peach cavity and roast in the oven for 20 minutes until peaches are tender and juicy and crumb mixture is golden brown. Put each half in a bowl and top with a scoop of vanilla ice cream.

How to peel peaches

My mother would always dip peaches in boiling water for 10 seconds to loosen their skins. These days I use a sharp serrated or paring knife to do the job, which is easier and keeps the peach fresh and firm.

How to buy peaches

Choose peaches with no blemishes or soft spots and buy them on the firm side. Leave on your counter for a day or two for soft ripeness or use when they are still a little hard for the salsa and grilled recipes.

At this time in the season, the sugars are high and the fruit doesn’t last long, so keep an eye on your supply and use or refrigerate ones with soft spots to deter mold growth and fruit flies.

While peaches will be around another month or so (with any luck), they are at the height of their sweet juiciness right now. Savor the rest of their season with a few of these delicious recipe ideas.

Main photo: A peach salad with strawberries, burrata, Thai basil and mint. Credit: Brooke Jackson

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Purslane, Corn, Squash and Squash Blossom Soup. Credit: Nancy Zaslavsky

Mexicans have foraged verdolagas (purslane, or Portulaca oleracea), a native of India and Persia, for centuries, and it remains a favorite green from Tijuana to Cancun. Because the annual plant isn’t a bit fussy about a sprout site, and because it’s a succulent, it germinates easily from a cutting or seed and needs little water once started.

Wild purslane is thrilled with most any sunny spot, where it spreads flat on the ground quickly from a single root and multiplies like chickenpox in kindergarten after it goes to seed. Sadly it’s less cherished in the U.S., where the plant is best known as a common weed and a gardener’s biggest nightmare. Farm-grown purslane, unlike in the wild, grows vertically, and can reach knee high for easy harvesting.

Green with a red blush on some of the 40 cultivated varieties, its edible ½-inch to 2-inch long leaves look like delicate baby jade plants. Larger leaves and stems are crunchy with a mouth feel like cactus paddles and okra but more delicate, with a tangy, slightly salty citrus-pepper bite.

With purslane, flavor depends on when it’s picked

In the book “In Defense of Food,” Michael Pollan calls purslane one of the most nutritious plants on earth. It contains more omega-3 fatty acids than any other leafy vegetable, on par with some fish. When the plant is thirsty, it switches to photosynthesis: At night, its leaves trap carbon dioxide, which converts into malic acid, and in daylight, the acid transforms into glucose. Purslane has 10 times the acid content in the morning vs. when it’s picked in the afternoon, so expect it to be slightly sour in breakfast quesadillas and almost sweet at dinner.

Mexicans cherish the plant’s citrus taste and look forward to the warm summer months when it is widely available. Tiny, delicate half-inch leaves are perfect for salads and to tuck into sandwiches; thick, larger leaves and thick stems cut into pieces are best for a more toothsome bite in cooked dishes, especially soups and rustic stews, where their natural pectin is appreciated for thickening qualities.

I suggest looking for luscious cultivated bunches at a greengrocer, Mexican market or farmers market rather than scrounging around town hunting for miserly sidewalk shoots. Unless you’re a fan of foraging, you probably won’t have a clue what time of day the store-bought purslane was picked; even so, its juicy leaf texture will woo you back for more.

Once picked or purchased, keep purslane fresh for another day or two in a container out of the sun with cut stems in a few inches of fresh water. Most people cut off and discard the thickest, chewy stem bottoms and use only delicate stem tops and leaves in recipes.

As in other Mexican soups and sauces, flavor and texture are everything. This soup is perfect for the family or when friends stop by; if fussy grandmothers are invited to a special-occasion dinner, strain the finished soup for a traditionally upscale smooth liquid.

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Purslane from Coleman Family Farm at the farmers market in Santa Monica, Calif. Credit: Nancy Zaslavsky

Purslane, Corn, Squash and Squash Blossom Soup (Sopa de Verdolagas, Maiz, Calabazas y Flores de Calabazas)

Prep Time: 10 minutes

Cook Time: 50 minutes

Total Time: 60 minutes

Yield: Makes 6 servings.

Ingredients

  • 2 tablespoons vegetable oil
  • 1 cup chopped white onion
  • 2 to 2½ cups scraped kernels from 3 ears summer sweet corn
  • 3 yellow zucchini or crookneck squash, about 6 inches each
  • 3 cups purslane leaves with delicate stems, 2 tablespoons of the tiniest half-inch leaves reserved for garnish
  • 2 large handfuls squash blossoms, 6 reserved for garnish
  • 1 teaspoon kosher or sea salt
  • ½ teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
  • 4 cups low-sodium chicken or vegetable broth at room temperature
  • ⅓ cup grated Mexican queso añejo or Parmesan cheese
  • ½ cup Mexican crema or sour cream

Directions

  1. Heat the oil in a large pot over medium heat. Toss in the onion and cook, stirring every few minutes until translucent. Add the corn kernels, stir and continue cooking 5 minutes. Cut the squash in quarters lengthwise and then into half-inch slices. Scoop into the pot and stir, cooking another 5 minutes.
  2. Pull off leaves and delicate stems from the thick purslane stems, enough to have about 3 cups. Add them to the pot and stir. Turn down the heat and simmer gently 5 minutes.
  3. Remove the five sharp green sepals at the base of each squash blossom. Snap off the stems from six of the prettiest blossoms and reserve for garnish. Slide the other blossoms and stems into the pot. Cook, stirring for a minute, and then turn off the heat.
  4. Ladle half the hot vegetables into a blender or processor. Pour in 1 cup broth. With the air vent open, purée 30 seconds and pour into the used mixing bowl. Ladle the remaining hot vegetables into the blender with another cup of broth. Purée 30 seconds, but this time pour it into the cooking pot. Scrape the purée from the bowl into the pot with a rubber spatula. Pour in the remaining broth. Bring to a fast boil (big bubbles you can’t stir down), and then lower the heat to a bare simmer for 2 minutes.
  5. Ladle into serving bowls. Garnish each with one of the reserved squash blossoms in the center, a sprinkle of grated cheese, some tiny purslane leaves and a small dollop of crema.

Main photo: Purslane, Corn, Squash and Squash Blossom Soup. Credit: Nancy Zaslavsky

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A selection of cookbooks from the 1950s and 1960s. Credit: Emily Contois

In the 1950s and 1960s, the food industry churned out a veritable buffet of newfangled food products with recipes to match, uniquely combining foods such as peanut butter, pineapple and Velveeta in a single dish. Such odd recipes made their way into the American culinary vernacular as the food industry sought domestic applications for food preservation technologies and products created during World War II.

Laura Shapiro tells this tale of convenience foods in “Something From the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America.” Through recipes printed on can labels and the back of boxes, in free pamphlets and branded cookbooks, the food industry sought to instruct housewives, who were initially leery of these new convenience foods, on how to cook with them, at every meal and for every audience. As Shapiro argues, rather than being rooted in any particular gastronomic tradition, “packaged-food cuisine” was its own invented culinary phenomenon, aimed at promoting specific food products. As a result, these recipes often recommended flavor and ingredient pairings that were unusual, to say the very least.

I’ve rounded up a selection of such recipes, drawing from cookbooks such as “Betty Crocker’s Picture Cook Book,” published in 1950, and Campbell’s “Easy Ways to Delicious Meals,” whose revised edition made its way onto bookshelves and into kitchens in 1968. Are these product-pushing recipes inventive or insane? Do they provide an unexpectedly right combination of savory and sweet or do they completely miss the mark? Are they surprisingly tasty or downright gross? You be the judge.

Recipes

1. Beans & Franks Chiquita. A simple recipe designed for a child to make, this dish starts with chopped onion cooked in butter (or margarine), then mixed with a can of beans and franks in tomato sauce. To this mixture, one adds the “Chiquita” portion of the recipe: sliced canned peaches, sliced bananas and a touch of nutmeg.

2. Beef Fizz. Described as “sheer wizardry as a pick-up,” this “refreshing” beverage recipe calls for a can of condensed beef broth mixed with a half cup of club soda and garnished with lemon.

3. Hawaiian Sandwich. In this recipe, which I alluded to in the intro, Velveeta “gets party-fancy” with “a really exotic flavor combination” that is “easy to fix and dramatic to serve.” Slather toasted bun halves with peanut butter. Then add a well-drained slice of pineapple and a slice of Velveeta. Bake or broil until the cheese melts, then top with a maraschino cherry.

 4. Marvelous Milk. While many a mom has cajoled a child into drinking her milk by stirring in a long squirt of chocolate syrup, how about beating in a mashed banana and a few drops of lemon juice?

5. Saucy Susans. If you’ve grown bored with basic biscuits, try this recipe, which substitutes tomato juice for the milk, resulting in pink-hued pastries. Bake the biscuit dough stacked in pairs with a slice of cheese sandwiched between to produce a breakfast-y version of grilled cheese and tomato soup.

6. Sunday Morning Sausage Ring. Perk up your weekend breakfast by combining 2 pounds of pork sausage with a couple of beaten eggs, some grated onion, bread crumbs and chopped parsley. Pack this savory concoction into a 9″ ring mold. Bake for 40 minutes at 350 F, taking out halfway through to pour off excess fat. Fill the ring with “Eggs à la King,” a soupy mixture of quartered hard-boiled eggs, cream sauce, canned mushrooms, chopped green pepper and pimiento, and paprika.

7. Wedgies. Don’t worry. Underwear-related social torture is not involved in this appetizer, but it is a “cake” made entirely from processed meat and cheese. Start with softened cream cheese and season it with minced onions or chives and a squirt of mustard. Spread the cream cheese on slices of bologna and then stack slices on top of one another like a layer cake. Then “ice” the tops and sides of your meat cake with a spreadable cheese. Decorate as you like with sliced olives. Chill, cut into wedges and serve.

Main photo: A selection of cookbooks from the 1950s and 1960s. Credit: Emily Contois

 

 

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A cocktail made with homemade tonic. Credit: Dustin Johnson

The difference between homemade and commercial tonic is startlingly obvious at a glance: The DIY variety looks almost like cola in the glass rather than club soda, and the flavor follows suit, being richer and spicier.

That was our experience with the tonic at James Lee’s craft-cocktail lounge The Bitter Bar in Boulder, Colo., anyway, and it was sufficiently eye-opening for us to get the scoop from bar manager Dustin Johnson. He explained that “the more commercial products use a quinine extract, and that’s why they can be clear. Ours is reddish-brown because we use ground cinchona bark. Some customers are surprised by the color, until they find out that it’s actually more natural for a tonic to look that way.”

They may or may not be equally surprised that the stuff mixes just as well with brown spirits as clear ones. “We really enjoy it with rye whiskey,” Johnson said, because “the caramel and vanilla flavors of the rye lend themselves well to its own flavors. Bourbon works in a similar fashion — we used to serve a cocktail called the BLT, which stands for bourbon, lemon and tonic. The added citrus made it really crisp and refreshing.”

Johnson’s standard recipe tonic requires a 5-gallon Cornelius keg, which is easy enough to find through home-brewing supply shops. But if you’re not prepared to make that kind of investment, Johnson also has a small-batch stovetop recipe at the ready. Cinchona bark can be purchased online, for instance at Healthy Village, or you may find it at your local apothecary.

Keg Tonic

Prep Time: 1½ to 2 hours

Cook Time: 45 minutes

Total Time: 8½ to 9 hours

Yield: 5 gallons

Ingredients

16 cups water

12 cups light agave syrup

6 ounces ground cinchona bark

9 ounces citric acid

Juice and zest of 8 lemons

Juice and zest of 8 oranges

Juice and zest of 8 limes

8 stalks lemongrass, roughly chopped

4 large pieces ginger root, roughly chopped

1½ ounces ground cinnamon

Special equipment:

Cornelius keg

Hotel pan

Directions

1. Put all ingredients into a very large nonreactive pot and bring to a boil, then lower the heat and simmer for 45 minutes, stirring regularly to make sure everything is dissolved.

2. Strain the mixture through a colander, then filter the strained liquid through a cheesecloth into a deep hotel pan with a perforated top for about 6 hours or overnight. This will yield 2 to 2½ gallons of syrup.

3. Mix 1½ gallons of syrup (refrigerating the remainder in plastic or glass for future use) with 3½ gallons water in your Cornelius keg. Force-carbonate for 48 hours.

Stovetop Tonic

Prep Time: 1 to 1½ hours

Cook Time: 40 minutes

Total Time: 5 to 6 hours

Yield: About 1 quart

Ingredients

4 cups water

3 cups light agave syrup

3 tablespoons ground cinchona bark

4 tablespoons citric acid

Juice and zest of 2 lemons

Juice and zest of 2 oranges

Juice and zest of 2 limes

2 stalks lemongrass, roughly chopped

1 ginger root, roughly chopped

1 tablespoon ground cinnamon

Soda water

Directions

1. Put all ingredients into a medium-sized nonreactive pot and bring to a boil, then lower the heat and simmer for about 40 minutes, stirring regularly to make sure everything is dissolved.

2. Strain the mixture through a colander, then filter the strained liquid through a cheesecloth into a heatproof container for 3-4 hours.

3. Funnel the resulting syrup into a large glass bottle, cover tightly and store in the refrigerator for up to several weeks. When ready to use, mix 1 ounce of syrup with about 3 ounces of soda water.

Main photo: A cocktail made with homemade tonic. Credit: Dustin Johnson

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Tonkatsu kare, or pork cutlet with curry sauce. Credit: Hiroko Shimbo

After several days in Japan, every foreign traveler notices that the Japanese love kare-raisu or curry rice as much as they do sushi and ramen. This dish of an aromatic but not very spicy curry sauce served with rice and protein can be found throughout the country, from the largest cities to the smallest remote mountain villages. There are entire restaurants specializing in kare-raisu, small family-run operations and large restaurant chains. The strange story of how this distinctive dish came to be a Japanese favorite starts with the British, their navy, and a Japanese physician’s observations on malnutrition.

After Japan emerged from centuries of isolation with the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the Japanese government decided to model its newly developing navy after all aspects of the British navy, including the training of its officers and sailors. Around the same time, Japanese doctor Kanehiro Takaki, who had studied at an English medical school, was appointed as a navy physician. Takaki’s mission was to conquer the mysterious disease beriberi, which was very common among Japanese naval officers and seamen.

During his stay in England, Takaki did not see many cases of beriberi in the British navy. And he noted that the British sailors’ protein-rich diet that also included wheat bread — foods rich in vitamin B, which we now know is required to prevent beriberi — was very different from Japanese sailors’ simple diet of fish, vegetables and rice. He concluded that malnutrition was the cause of the beriberi epidemic and that the addition of such proteins to the diet could solve the beriberi problem in the Japanese navy. Takaki returned to Japan and worked to persuade the navy that it should adopt a Western diet containing protein for the sailors. Nutritious, filling and easy to make in a single pot, kare-raisu was perfect for the navy kitchen and was soon adopted by all branches of the navy. It became the custom in the navy to serve kare-raisu at the end of each week.

Also in that period, great changes were occurring on the Japanese culinary scene. The ban on meat eating that had been imposed on the commoner population was finally lifted. New ingredients such as butter and milk were introduced to the Japanese kitchen. The Emperor himself promoted Western-style meals, with the hope of building a stronger and taller Japanese population. Under these conditions, new Western-style dishes, collectively called yoshoku, were born, and some of these new creations were adopted by the navy kitchen. Kare-raisu, directly inspired by the curry-spiced stew dish served in the British navy, was one. This is how curry rice came to Japan from India by way of the British navy.

Here is an early kare-raisu recipe published in 1906 from the “Kaigun Kappo Jutsu Sankoshoor Navy Cooking Technique Reference Cookbook.

1. Cut meat, carrots, onions and potato into cubes.

2. Heat beef fat in a stock pot and cook flour.

3. Add curry powder, stock, meat and vegetables, and cook over low heat.

4. Add salt to taste.

5. Serve the curry sauce over steamed rice with pickled vegetables.

It is not at all different from the recipe in general use today.

Japanese curry with vegetables

Vegetables with rice and curry sauce. Credit: Hiroko Shimbo

In Tokyo, kare-raisu was first served to the public at high-class, white-tablecloth restaurants. Diners often dressed in Western attire and, wanting to be seen as modern, ate their curry with knives, forks and spoons, not the usual chopsticks. It is recorded that in 1877, Tokyo Fugetsu-do, a Western-style restaurant, served kare-raisu and its price was 8 sen (8 cents).

A few decades later, a different style curry was born in Tokyo. This new curry dish came directly from India by a rather serendipitous route. Ras Bihari Bose, an Indian activist, fled to Japan in 1915 when his plan with colleagues to overthrow the British Raj failed. But Japan was part of an Anglo-Japan Alliance, and Bose was not safe. Luckily, he fell under the protection of Aizo Soma, a businessman known for his benevolent activities. Soma owned and operated Nakamuraya, a store in Tokyo that produced newly introduced bread products along with the traditional Japanese sweets. Bose tasted Japanese kare-raisu while he was in hiding under Soma’s protection, but criticized it as “not at all authentic.” He proceeded to help Soma develop a more authentic Indian curry recipe. The result, Indo-kare, was introduced to Soma’s customers in 1927 at his new café-restaurant, which still exists.

Today kare-raisu and Indo-kare share the same popularity in Japan. My favorite kare-raisu is, of course, my mother’s curry. Her version is in between the European and Indian styles of curry. Beautifully caramelized onion with commercially prepared S&B Curry Powder and some flour in oil was cooked with carrot, potato, apple in chicken stock for more than four hours. As the sauce cooks, she checks the flavor several times and adds seasonings such as salt, sugar and shoyu (soy sauce). I followed my mother each step, tasted it as the curry cooked down and learned the very best flavor, texture and color in the prepared dishes. The end result was a velvety, brown, lightly thickened, aromatic sauce. Below is my recent kare-raisu recipe, inspired my shrimp curry recipe in my book  “The Japanese Kitchen.

Hiroko's Chicken Curry

Prep Time: 20 minutes

Cook Time: 2 hours, 30 minutes

Total Time: 2 hours, 50 minutes

Yield: 2 servings

Ingredients

  • ¼ cup canola oil
  • Half medium white onion, chopped in food processor
  • 1 tablespoon ginger, chopped fine in food processor
  • 2 garlic cloves, chopped fine in food processor
  • 2 tablespoons Japanese S&B curry powder or Madras curry powder
  • 1 teaspoon turmeric powder
  • About 1 tablespoon all purpose flour
  • 2½ cups chicken stock
  • 2 tablespoons tomato paste
  • 2 to 3 teaspoons Worcestershire sauce
  • 1 to 2 teaspoons Tamari soy sauce
  • Sea salt
  • About ¼ cup apricot jam
  • About 2 tablespoons light brown sugar
  • 2 chicken thighs and legs, skin attached, cut into 6 to 7 pieces
  • Half lemon
  • Cooked rice (short-, medium- or long-grain rice)

Directions

  1. Cook the onion in heated oil until it is lightly browned, stirring occasionally. Add the ginger and garlic and cook 1 minute more.
  2. Add the curry powder, turmeric and flour and cook until it is smooth. Add 1 cup of the chicken stock and stir with a whisk. Add an additional 1 cup of the chicken stock and stir with a whisk. Add the remaining ½ cup of the stock and stir with a whisk. Add the tomato paste, Worcestershire sauce, tamari, sea salt, apricot jam and light brown sugar.
  3. Cook the curry sauce about 1½ hours -- longer is better. When the sauce is cooked halfway, squeeze the lemon half into the curry sauce and throw the used lemon into the sauce.
  4. Heat a little oil in the skillet and brown the chicken pieces on both sides.
  5. Transfer the chicken pieces to the curry pot. Cook the chicken in the sauce for 20 to 30 minutes over very low heat, covered.
  6. Serve the curry over hot, cooked rice.

Main photo: Tonkatsu kare, or pork cutlet with curry sauce. Credit: Hiroko Shimbo 

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Fish and chips with mushy peas to go from Armstrong's Fish and Chips in Prestwich, Manchester. Credit: Clarissa Hyman

When it comes to national icons, the rest of the world thinks of Britain in terms of the changing of the guard, Shakespeare’s birthplace, Princess Di and good old fish and chips. And, now, the latter is taking to the skies. You could say they’re frying high, except it would be a terrible joke.

National airline British Airways has just introduced a “Flying Fish and Chip Supper” on board various short-haul flights from Heathrow Airport to destinations such as Athens, Greece, or St. Petersburg, Russia.

BA has linked up with the Quayside fish and chip shop (chippy as it is known in the vernacular) in Whitby, Yorkshire, which was recently awarded the prestigious title of “Best in Britain” in the 2014 National Fish & Chip Awards.

Three excellent fish and chip shops

Despite the sad truth that the standard of fish and chips has long been in decline throughout the UK, honored more in Pavlovian anticipation than the flabby and greasy actuality of stale oil, cheap vinegar and frozen potatoes, there are still some excellent fish and chip shops to be found around the country.

  • The Fish House in Fleetwood, Lancashire. The Richardsons are a family of former fish merchants with Marine Stewardship Council certification and superb fresh fish and chips.
  • Kingfisher in Plymouth, Devon. This restaurant is also a candidate for everyone’s ideal chippy with sustainable fish and fresh Maris Piper chips — fluffy on the inside and crispy on the outside.
  • Frankie’s in Shetland Isles. This is Britain’s most northerly fish and chip cafe and takeaway where you can probably get the best haddock ever known to Scotsman. Chip shop dreams are made of this — and who am I to disagree?

Stuart Fusco, chef-director of Quayside, has been working with BA to give his expert opinion on its sustainable cod fillet and chunky chips. Fusco says in a business travel news release that “cooking up a good batter on board presents some unique challenges,” which may be something of an understatement, given that our ability to taste saltiness and sweetness is reduced by about 30 percent at high altitude.

BA’s menu development manager Sinead Ferguson explains they have to pre-fry both the fish fillets and the chips, “but the length of time we do this for is fundamental to giving the chips and batter that desired crunch.”

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Stuart Fusco, head chef at Quayside, which has been named "Best in Britain" in the 2014 National Fish and Chip Awards, is behind British Airways' effort to serve fish and chips onboard short-haul flights throughout August. Credit: Nick Morrish/British Airways

History of fish and chips

The technique of shallow-frying fish in oil, originally to be served cold, is thought to have been introduced by Sephardic Jews in 19th century London. At the time fresh fish was widely available from the North Sea, and traders realized that frying the fish helped prolong shelf-life as well as mask any less-than-fresh aromas.

Fried potato stalls were also popular in working-class areas, boosted by the advent of cheap cooking oils, cast iron industrial ranges and patented inventions such as automatic potato peelers.

The great moment when fish met chip, however, plunges us into hot controversy. Some say the East End, others claim Dundee, Bradford, Oldham or Mossley near Manchester as the birthplace of the nation’s chippy. Certainly the borderland between Lancashire and Yorkshire was fertile territory for this new street food: a strong tradition of potato eating; access from the ports via the new railway network; working families who needed cheap, quick and nutritious food.

Although things have never been quite the same since the hygiene police banned the use of traditional newsprint for wrapping paper (which effectively blotted up the fat without steaming the contents), a proper portion of fresh, well-made fish and chips can hit the spot like no other.

However, if there is one thing better, it is a chip butty. To construct, lavishly spread sliced white bread or barm cakes with butter. Fill to capacity with salted, well-vinegared chips, hot enough to melt the butter. Simply divine.

Four Fish Batters

Yield: Each of the following four recipes produces enough batter to deep-fry 4 pieces of fish

1. Dissolve one package of active dried yeast in ¼ cup of tepid water. Sieve 2 cups all-purpose flour and a teaspoon of salt into a bowl and make a well in the center. Pour in 1 cup of tepid water plus the yeast and water mixture; whisk well. Leave covered for a few hours before using.

2. Sift 1 cup self-rising flour with a pinch of salt, then add 1 egg, 1 tablespoon oil or melted butter and ⅔ cup milk to make a smooth batter.

3. Place ¾ cup all-purpose flour in a bowl, make a well. Add an egg yolk, 3 tablespoons beer and a little salt. Mix together. Combine 3 tablespoons milk and 2 tablespoons cold water. Gradually add to the first mixture. Rest for at least 30 minutes, then fold in 2 stiffly beaten egg whites.

4. To make a tempura batter, loosely whisk 1 cup of very cold water and a refrigerator-temperature egg with 1 cup all-purpose flour, ¼ cup cornstarch and a pinch of salt.

A Word About Mushy Peas

Mushy –  what a word! You couldn’t invent another that so aptly describes the texture and consistency of this northern delicacy that adds a touch of subtle color to the burnished palette of the fish and chip plate.

Old Cumbrian directions for Pease Pudding, aka Mushy Peas:

1. Soak two cups of dried marrowfat or split green peas overnight with a pinch of baking soda.

2. Drain and place into a pan with a sliced onion. Cover with water and simmer for 2 hours until soft and the water absorbed.

3. Purée until thick but still somewhat lumpy, then add 2 tablespoons butter, a beaten egg, salt, pepper and a little nutmeg. Reheat gently, stirring constantly.

Alternatively, buy a tin of Lockwood’s Mushy Peas (and tart up with a bit of fresh mint).

Main photo: Fish and chips with mushy peas to go from Armstrong’s Fish and Chips in Prestwich, Manchester. Credit: Clarissa Hyman

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Finnish chef Sami Tallberg is on a mission to make foraging part of the national way of life once more. Credit: Martin Thompson

Finns treasure their solitary excursions into the endless woods and forests that fringe the 187,888 lakes and 179,584 islands of their hauntingly beautiful countryside. Throughout the summer and autumn, they prefer to keep their meditations on the beauty of the natural world to themselves: They rarely go in large groups, privacy is valued, and the social code generally prohibits more than a brief nod to anyone they meet. And, of course, they sensibly like to keep their prized foraging spots to themselves.

Although Finns have always collected berries and mushrooms, other types of plant-hunting have become nearly forgotten skills. Foraging was associated with war-time hardship (dandelion roots, for example, were used as a substitute for coffee) and rejected in favor of status-symbol, shop-bought food. However, Helsinki-based chef  Sami Tallberg is on a mission to make foraging part of the national way of life once more. And it’s not just a way of finding food for free, but of celebrating healthy produce and enlightening minds.

As Tallberg says, “Once you understand where ingredients come from, you see their beauty and learn to respect their qualities with the minimum of processing.”

Catching the foraging bug

Tallberg got the foraging bug about 10 years ago when working in London. One day the legendary Kentish forager Miles Irving walked into the kitchen with a box of wild seakale.

“I was just knocked out when I tried it,” Tallberg recalled, “and when I came back to Finland, I realized I was living in a big green supermarket. The Everyman’s Rights Code allows anyone to pick anywhere except someone’s back garden or protected species.”

Tallberg does not consider wild plants as substitutes for cultivated vegetables and herbs, but as important ingredients in their own right, both in terms of taste and their nutritional qualities.

Taking advantage of one of Finland’s long summer days, Tallberg and I went foraging on a tiny island that lies within Helsinki’s city limits. We were surrounded by a surprisingly wide variety of edible plants: mild, strong, crunchy, coarse, fragrant, bulky, delicate. Less than an hour later, he served me the best salad I have ever eaten. And the cheapest.

Highlighting wild herbs and plants

The use of wild herbs and plants has become a hallmark of many modern restaurants in Finland and elsewhere — Noma in Copenhagen led the way with its version of the new Nordic Cuisine. But Tallberg wants to introduce (or re-introduce) wild plants to the home cook.

As we explored the thickets of greenery, Tallberg gave me a lesson in plant-hunting. The patches of wild strawberries, with tiny, twinkling fruit, were easy to spot and Tallberg showed me how to string them on a blade of grass to transport them safely home. Carpets of exquisite purple and yellow heartsease (Viola tricolor) were delicately perfumed with vanilla. And Japanese rose bushes (Rosa rugosa) were in bloom, their petals shocking pink against the dark green leaves.

After that, plant identification became trickier. Tallberg is adamant you should not eat or even pick any plant you cannot recognize with absolute certainty. If in doubt, leave it out, he advises.

“Start with the ones (plants) you already know to get you going,” he advised as he presented me with a bunch of sheep’s sorrel (Rumex acetosella), which he describes as a smaller, more elegant version of common sorrel. “Many people think it’s a noxious weed, but it’s lovely with fish and shellfish or green asparagus.”

“When you find a new plant, stop and go back some 10 meters and walk towards the plants again. This way you will be able to make observations about some essential feature, such as color, height, leaf shape, scent and so on.”

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Mushroom forager's bag at Mikkeli Market, Finland. Credit: Clarissa Hyman

Unless you go out with an experienced forager, it helps immensely to consult a book, such as Tallberg’sWild Herb Cookbook,” or take a course about native plants at a local community college. Websites, such as NatureGate, are also helpful. But, as Tallberg says, “Be sensible: don’t go harvesting herbs or plants along highways, on areas sprayed with herbicides, or near factories. Also avoid foraging near golf courses or other areas where herbicides or other pesticides may have been used. Consider sustainability and don’t tear out all the roots. The tools you need are the same as used in gathering mushrooms: a basket and a small knife, although I also include scissors in my basic tool kit. If you’re picking nettles, wear gloves.”

Able to identify culinary plants

As he gathered samples of chickweed,  fat hen and sweet cicely, Tallberg said he could identify more than 80 varieties of culinary plants but was still learning.

“I get so excited when I’m out foraging — I imagine how lovely the violets will be with fish or how polypody (Polypodium) is a natural flavor enhancer for game or how I’m going to use pine needles like rosemary or deep-fry nettle leaves or lichen and flavor them with juniper salt. … And then I remember I’m still in Helsinki — it’s crazy! Foraging has given me a new angle on life, not just gastronomy,” he said.

Tallberg has built a business supplying wild ingredients to other chefs, has written several books on the subject and acts as a national consultant and Finnish food ambassador. He was awarded the prestigious Finland Prize for his work with food, nature and conservation.

As we meandered, Tallbert was a companionable and enthusiastic soundtrack, “There are many different types of dandelion. … Oh, look, there’s some orpine. They’ve got juicy, succulent leaves and tops, and you can use them like a salad leaf or toss into a jus. … Ooh, just found some Polypodium vulgare, that’s quite liquorish and good for fish and game. … A bit later in the year, this is where I’ll find bilberries, rowanberries, wild raspberries … Wild yarrow will bring herbal tones to a salad. … I use maple leaves, when they’re young and shiny, like vine leaves. … Chickweed are like pea shoots but milder and more mellow and add volume to a salad.”

Back at his flat, he explained the building blocks of wild salad making: “You’re looking for acidity, aroma and sweetness.”

To the haunting music of Aino Vena, we drank refreshing Nordic Koivu, birch sap water, as Tallberg made a vinaigrette with a splash of sea buckthorn juice. The salad was vivid and intense. I could feel myself getting healthier as I ate. Together with an omelette, local goat’s cheese and yogurt with wild strawberries, violets and bee pollen, it was the real taste of Finland.

Pork Chops With Fat Hen and Mustard*

Ingredients

  • Yield: 4 servings
  • Four 7-ounce pork chops (use first-class pork for this dish)
  • 2 handfuls of fat hen
  • 2 tablespoons strong mustard
  • 2 tablespoons honey
  • Olive oil
  • Freshly ground sea salt and pepper

Directions

  1. Season the pork chops with sea salt and pepper, brush with oil and fry on a hot cast-iron pan until just cooked.
  2. Cook the fat hen in water flavored with honey and salt for a couple of minutes, drain, toss with a drop of olive oil and serve with mustard.
  3. * This goes well with Carrots With Sweet Cicely

Carrots With Sweet Cicely

Yield: 4 servings

Ingredients

14 ounces small carrots

1 teaspoon sea salt

2 tablespoons honey (brown sugar or treacle will do, too)

2½ cups water

half a handful of sweet cicely, finely chopped

2 ounces butter

Directions

1. Peel the carrots (unless you are using new season ones that have a thin peel containing plenty of flavor).

2. Place all the ingredients in a pot (apart from the sweet cicely), covering the carrots with water. Cook until almost all of the water has evaporated and a shiny butter glaze remains. Add the sweet cicely.

 

Steamed Fillet of Salmon With Ox-Eye Daisy Shoots

Yield: 4 servings

Ingredients

4 (4-ounce) pieces of salmon, boned

1 cucumber, sliced lengthways

4 tablespoons salad dressing*

Freshly ground sea salt and pepper

Directions

1. Season the salmon pieces with sea salt and pepper, steam them for about 3 minutes and leave to stand in room temperature for about 10 minutes, after which they will be ready.

2. Peel the cucumber, spoon out the seeds and cut the cucumber lengthwise into thin slices (with a cheese slicer or mandolin cutter).

3. Toss the shoots and cucumber in the salad dressing, season with sea salt and pepper and serve with the salmon at room temperature.

 

* Salad dressing

Ingredients

2 generous cups of cold-pressed olive oil

1¼ cup vegetable oil

¾ cup white wine vinegar

1½ tablespoon dried tarragon

4 medium-size garlic cloves, sliced

4 to 5 ounces Dijon-type mustard

Juice of half a lemon

Directions

1. Mix the ingredients in a jug blender or with a hand blender, and strain them by pressing through a strainer with a small ladle to ensure all aromas are captured.

Recipes are from: “Wild Herb Cookbook” by Sami Tallberg (2012), available in both Finnish- and English-language editions.

Main photo: Finnish chef Sami Tallberg is on a mission to make foraging part of the national way of life once more. Credit: Martin Thompson

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