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I am a farmers market fiend.
The ability to “eat local” is glorious for a gastronome, and late summer abounds with gifts of heirloom tomatoes, juicy melons and colorful squashes. Farmers markets boast the most succulent produce, hands down, and I discover some newfangled specimen each season. Giving your food dollars to local farmers nourishes businesses, and supporting regional agriculture preserves land and protects biodiversity. And it just feels good to commune with similar spirits in the commons about something as fundamental as food.
Yet amid baskets of blueberries lie mountains of misinformation: Farmers market fiction is as copious as the produce, folklore fueled by junk science. Below are five myths you’re better off ignoring so you can make the best choices for your health and our planet.
Eating local is the best thing you can do for the environment
Local goodies have fewer food miles, as they travel a shorter distance to your plate than food crossing the globe. But you can’t conclude automatically that your local apple has a smaller carbon footprint than the imported one at the store. Economies of scale matter, as does mode of transport; millions of apples arriving by ship often have fewer emissions per unit than thousands traversing by truck. Paramount is how food is produced: A seminal study estimates that production contributes 83% of greenhouse gas emissions compared to only 11 percent for transportation. In other words, what you eat is the biggest contributor to climate change, not where you shop. Since raising animals requires intensive inputs (like water, food, fuel and land) and many produce methane, a potent greenhouse gas, the best thing you can do to protect the planet is eat less meat.
Local vegetables and fruits are more nutritious
Although soil can impact nutritional composition (like selenium), and species genotype also plays a role, any given plant is what it is. All apples, for example, provide vitamin C, fiber, water and phytochemicals: How produce is picked, transported, stored and prepared impacts nutrient content more significantly than where it’s grown. For instance, a carrot picked at its peak, flash frozen on site, stored in your freezer, then steamed briefly for supper can have more beta-carotene than one plucked days later, transported by truck, and which has sat at the local market in the heat, brought home, and resided in your fridge until you ate it who knows when.
Local seafood is more sustainable
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Most people don’t consume enough seafood for optimum health, but choosing fish is complex. Many local species have been overfished to the point of extinction, and those from nearby waterways may even be more contaminated with mercury or other toxins. How seafood is caught also makes a difference, as some methods lead to copious food waste discarded as bycatch.
For these reasons and others, farmed fish (aquaculture) can be the most environmentally sound option. There are myriad issues to consider when determining what seafood is most sustainable and nutritious; downloading a science-based app can help you make an informed choice.
Local food is safer
The life cycle chain from farm to fork is often shorter and more transparent within regional systems, which can aid in identifying sources of outbreaks. Yet there are no conclusive data that farmers markets are safer, and local systems can lack the quality control of larger outfits with tighter regulations. Wares sitting in hot temperatures are a bacterial breeding ground if improperly stored, too. Moreover, farmers markets are replete with raw products sold under the pretense of health — though the Food and Drug Administration reflects scientific consensus showing that unpasteurized foods carry a far greater risk of food-borne illness.
Farmers markets are cheaper
Although you can find terrific bargains, farmers market prices are generally comparable to or higher than other shopping spots — and the exorbitant price of organic local foods even makes me gasp. Meals made with high-quality ingredients are magnificent, and carry a matching price tag. Yet I and others who scour farmers markets like a kid in a candy shop are fortunate, as we have the time, money and opportunity to do so. Studies show that supermarkets and big box stores, in contrast, feed people with less expense and effort, critically important for those struggling to get supper on the table.
Local foods are increasingly available, making it easier than ever to support all the good things they represent. While not a panacea, local markets will doubtless play a delicious role in solving today’s complex food problems — and they already do in the developing world. If you’re not yet wandering through your vibrant farmers market, there’s no better time to titillate your senses with the season’s best. Grab your bag, ditch the myths, and take pleasure in food that tastes better than any other.
Main photo: Fresh mushrooms and herbs at Borough Market in London. Credit: Copyright 2016 P.K. Newby
Cooks have long been travelers, moving from royal court to papal conclave, and Austrian-born Max Beyer is a great example of this restless spirit. Although still in his 20s, he has been executive chef of the Viking River Cruises ship Heimdal for two years now: a seven-day-a week, 12-hour-a-day job. He heads the kitchen of a boat that sails the Rhône River from Lyon, the gastronomic capital of France, down to Avignon, capital of medieval popes.
Max began in the family restaurant in Linz in the valley of the river Danube. “It was simple cooking, schnitzel, roast pork, that kind of thing. Grandma baked plum cake and strudel at the weekend, and I always helped. In Austria, we all know the basic pastries; they form part of so many of our dishes.”
After leaving school, Max followed an apprenticeship of both school and practical work, ending in the kitchen of a 50-year-old star chef. “He had 35 years more experience than me,” says Max. “It was amazing what he knew.”
The secret to shopping
On the Heimdal, Max guides an 11-member kitchen staff in providing three meals a day and constant snacks for 180 guests. A more gastronomic route could hardly be imagined, but how do you transfer such specialties as the pink pralines and the “rosette” dried sausages of Lyon, or the candied apricots and oranges of Provence, or the goat cheeses of the nearby Loire valley to the tiny galley kitchen of a large river boat? “You must know how to shop,” says Max, and his round face beams.
“We’ll go to the market, we’ll see some good things,” he declares, and thus ensues a deeply gastronomic afternoon. This proves to be no ordinary expedition. Les Halles de Lyon de Paul Bocuse is a covered market renowned throughout France for its more than 50 retailers clustered in aisles beneath a soaring roof. Chef Bocuse, who is often known as “l’Empereur,” had much to do with its development in the heart of Lyon city. “These are all artisan producers,” explains Max. “Restaurateurs shop here, but local residents drop by to collect their supper too. Everyone enjoys the market.”
From pork to cheese stands
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Nearly half of the merchants specialize in pork — Lyon is one of the sausage capitals of France, and it features dozens, hundreds probably, of versions of air-dried “saucissons” of raw, ground pork. Max goes into conference with the seller, who is clearly a friend. Half a dozen varied firm, dry sausages are plucked from the overhanging racks. Max pinches them: “We want them firm, but not too dried out, either” he says. He takes a sniff: “These seem just right.” In the chilled case below are ranged pigs’ ears, sweetbreads, tripe, pigs’ tails. Max casts a wistful glance but this is not ship’s fare.
On to the cheese stand and another huddled discussion. No question about it, cheese is my favorite food, and this display of 50 or more different cheeses makes me sigh. I used to live in Burgundy, not far north of Lyon, and the cheese display makes me sigh nostalgic. “Let’s have some goat cheeses,” says Max. “Valençay is shaped like a pyramid, and the St. Maur has been rolled in vegetable ashes; they both taste different. Then there’s the blue Roquefort that everyone wants, though I personally would go for Fourme d’Ambert or perhaps Bleu d’Auvergne at half the price.” I nod in agreement.
Challenges and chocolate cake
Back on the ship, Max lugs his purchases to his miniscule galley. The restricted space is used day and night, organized following the classic guidelines established by Escoffier more than a century ago: saucier (who is also sous-chef), entremettier (vegetables and smaller side dishes such as soufflés and crêpes), garde-manger (salads and cold kitchen) and dishwashers — “they have my admiration,” comments Max. “We all help each other. Last week I was peeling asparagus with the rest of them.”
Cooking on a ship
I ask about the problems of cooking on the move. “Let’s call them challenges,” says Max. “Just this morning the water was cut off, so we cooked with bottled water.”
Cooking is just the beginning of Max’s responsibilities. He keeps in close touch with guests, touring the dining rooms at each meal and keeping an eye on service. He gives a cooking class too, whipping up a popular recipe for chocolate lava cake one afternoon. Some brisk work is involved, and Max proves to have the gift of the gab. “You know, my grandma used to use a hand whisk, but faster!”
Anne Willan’s trip on the Viking Heimdal was a gift from Viking River Cruises to celebrate the 50th anniversary of her marriage to Mark Cherniavsky.
Main photo: While on the move, executive chef Max Beyer of the Viking river boat Heimdal takes regular visits to local markets. Credit: Copyright 2016 Miguel Altamirano
If you think of Tuscany and its wines, it is the famous names that immediately come to mind: Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino and Bolgheri. But Tuscany is so much more than those. There are all manner of lesser-known wines off the beaten track.
I recently spent a couple of days in the Orcia valley, an area sandwiched between the vineyards of Montalcino and Montepulciano, with a river that rises at Monte Cetona and flows into the Ombrone. The Orcia DOC was recognized in 2000, and in 2004 the whole valley was classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
As for most of the red wines of Tuscany, Sangiovese is the dominant variety, often blended with the likes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Petit Verdot. There are now about 40 wine estates in the 13 villages of the Orcia valley, with an impressive level of quality and just waiting to be discovered. Here are five that are well worth the detour.
Fattoria del Colle
This is the property of Donatella Cinelli and Carlo Gardini. Donatella’s family has long been part of the wine scene of Montalcino, with her brother now running Fattoria dei Barbi, but Fattoria del Colle is where Donatella makes her mark outside Montalcino. She has about 81 acres of vines near the village of Trequanda and makes three red wines, not to mention Vin Santo, which is an essential part of every classic Tuscan estate.
Leone Rosso is Sangiovese with 40 percent Merlot, making for riper, fleshier flavors. Cenerentola, or Cinderella, is Sangiovese with 35 percent Foglia Tonda, an old Tuscan grape variety that almost disappeared. Donatella has played a large part in its successful revival. And then there is Il Drago e le Otto Colombe, a blend of Sangiovese with some Merlot, as well as 20 percent of an Umbrian grape variety, Sagrantino. The name of the wine refers to the fact that the estate is run by women, the doves, with just one man, or dragon, Donatella’s husband, Carlo. It makes an amusing aside. But Donatella has a serious focus; a fellow winegrower described her as the anima, or driving force, of the Val d’Orcia.
This is a relatively new estate, in Tuscan terms, for it was created in 1997 by Pasquale Forte, a businessman from Calabria. From one small purchase in 1997, he has developed a 416-acre estate, including 25 acres of vines (in addition, there are olive trees, extensive woodlands and land for rearing animals).
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Sangiovese is the core variety, with some Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot and Merlot. They aim for self-sufficiency and even have a restaurant, the very stylish Osteria Perillà, in the nearby village of Castiglione d’Orcia, where you can enjoy the produce of the estate. They are moving toward biodynamic principles and paying enormous attention to the condition of the soil, with advice from the leading expert in the field, Claude Bourguignon.
A drive around the vineyards offered breathtaking views of the hilltops of Rocca d’Orcia and Castiglione d’Orcia, with the autumn sunshine reflecting on golden vines. The cellar can only be described as state-of-the-art, with several sorting tables, vats for microvinifications and a serious selection of barrels.
They make three wines. Petruccino, a blend of 70 percent Sangiovese and 30 percent Merlot with 14 months’ oak aging, has a ripe fleshiness from the Merlot, balanced with freshness from the Sangiovese. More serious is Petrucci, a pure Sangiovese, described as their flagship wine, with aging in new oak. The third wine of the range is single-vineyard Guardiavigna, from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Petit Verdot. The 2010 was drinking particularly well, with elegance and balance.
This estate was developed by Giuseppe Olivi, who produces an eclectic range of wines from an equally eclectic selection of grape varieties, namely Sangiovese, the key Bordeaux varieties, Syrah, and Pugnitello, another Tuscan variety that has been revived in recent years. His flagship wine is I Puri, a varietal wine that changes from year to year, depending on which grape variety is the absolute best in that particular vintage. In 2009 it was Merlot and in 2010 Sangiovese, with a fine expression of the variety. Unusually for the Orcia valley, they also have some white varieties, Verdicchio, Viognier and Sauvignon, making a fragrant white wine with some stony minerality.
This is an enchanting spot, with views of Monte Amiata and the small town of Pienza. The almost abandoned property was bought in 1999 by Ada Becheri and Alberto Turri, and they began planting vines in 2002. Until 2008, they merely sold their grapes and did some experimental microvinifications. The following year, they built a neat compact cellar and now they make a convincing range of wines that amply illustrate the characteristics of the Orcia valley, with Sangiovese, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Petit Verdot in varying proportions. Oak aging is essential to them all.
Citto, from all four varieties, is elegant and cedary; Ciriè is Sangiovese and Merlot, with some fleshy fruit; Tribòlo is a pure Sangiovese, and a riserva, which requires 24 months of aging. In fact, it has spent 30 months in small barrels, with some lovely elegant sour cherry fruit and just the right amount of oak. And finally there is Albiano, a blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, with just a touch of Petit Verdot. This is riper and immediately more international in flavor, while still retaining the benchmark elegance of Podere Abiello.
Marco’s first vintage was 2001. He has developed the vineyards of an old family estate to make two wines: Capitoni, which is a blend of 80 percent Sangiovese with some Merlot, and Frasi, which comes from a 3.2-acre vineyard planted in1973 that is mainly Sangiovese, with Canaiolo and Colorino. The three varieties are all mixed up in the vineyard and consequently fermented together, then aged in large wood for two years. A vertical tasting of Le Frasi from 2010 to 2005 illustrated the vintage variations. But the first things you see in Marco’s cellar are two large amphorae, for he is experimenting with Sangiovese in amphora.
The flavors are fresh and perfumed, with elegant red fruit and potential, rather like Val d’Orcia, which is a sleeping giant waiting to be discovered.
Main photo: Podere Forte’s vineyards offer breathtaking views of the hilltops of Rocca d’Orcia and Castiglione d’Orcia. Credit: Photo courtesy of Consorzio del Vino Orcia
Pasta is the perfect summer food. It’s easy to cook, light, healthy and can be served in all sorts of exciting ways. It can be paired with virtually anything — grilled or even raw veggies, cheese, seafood and meat. Pasta is great hot or cold. It is versatile enough for a quick midweek meal or an elegant weekend dinner party. Fancy or simple, it’s always a favorite for potlucks and backyard barbecues, and pasta can be served as a side or main dish.
Here’s what Andrew Zimmern, Mario Batali, Lidia Bastianich and other celebrity chefs are serving this summer.
Taking it to the grill
Andrew Zimmern does wonders with simple grilled broccoli rabe, tossing it with cooked pasta and topping it with easy-to-make lemony bread crumbs. “You’ll freak, in a good way,” says the colorful Zimmern. He explains the dish’s inspiration: “I was having dinner at Chi Spacca in Los Angeles and one of the side dishes we tried was charred broccoli rabe drizzled with olive oil and lemon. It was perfect. I thought about this dish every day for weeks! So I merged the ideas and created this elegant summer pasta.”
Charred Broccoli Rabe With Chitarra & Lemony Bread Crumbs
Originally published in Andrew Zimmern’s “Kitchen Adventures” on foodandwine.com.
Yield: 6 servings
For the bread crumbs
1/4 pound day-old Italian bread, torn into chunks
1/4 cup lightly packed flat-leaf parsley leaves
2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
1 teaspoon finely grated lemon zest
1 small garlic clove, minced
For the pasta
1 pound broccoli rabe, stem tips trimmed
1/2 cup extra virgin olive oil
1 pound chitarra or spaghetti
3 garlic cloves, thinly sliced
1/2 teaspoon crushed red pepper
1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice
Freshly grated Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese, for serving
1. Make the bread crumbs
2. Preheat the oven to 375 F. In a food processor, pulse the bread with the parsley, olive oil, zest and garlic until coarse crumbs form. Season with salt and pepper, then spread on a large rimmed baking sheet. Bake for 7 to 10 minutes, until golden and crisp; let cool.
3. Make the pasta.
4. Light a grill. In a large bowl, toss the broccoli rabe with 2 tablespoons of the olive oil and season with salt and pepper. Grill over high heat, turning occasionally, until crisply tender and lightly charred all over, 3 to 5 minutes. Transfer to a work surface and let cool slightly, then finely chop.
5. Meanwhile, in a large saucepan of salted boiling water, cook the pasta until al dente. Reserve 1/2 cup of the cooking water, then drain the pasta.
6. Wipe out the saucepan and heat 1/4 cup of the olive oil in it until shimmering. Add the garlic and crushed red pepper and cook over moderately high heat, stirring, until fragrant and just starting to brown, about 1 minute. Add the pasta, broccoli rabe, reserved cooking water, lemon juice and the remaining 2 tablespoons of olive oil and cook, tossing, until the pasta is coated, about 2 minutes. Season with salt and pepper.
7. Transfer the pasta to a serving bowl and scatter some bread crumbs on top. Serve right away, passing additional bread crumbs at the table.
Make ahead: The lemony bread crumbs can be refrigerated for up to 4 days. Toast in a 325 F oven for 5 minutes before using.
Using sweet ripe tomatoes
Mario Batali’s penne with raw tomatoes is a perfect way to enjoy summer sweet ripe tomatoes. Like all the recipes in “Molto Gusto,” this one is an Italian classic. “What seems to be all the rage in the smart world of foodies is simply an extension of the traditional Italian table,” says Batali, winner of numerous awards, including “Man of the Year” in the chef category by GQ Magazine in 1999. Batali’s excellent recipe makes a great summer meal, followed by a simple green salad.
Cherry on the top
Lidia Bastianich, a regular on public television since 1998 (in 2014, she launched her fifth TV series, “Lidia’s Kitchen”), has taught Americans hundreds of ways to enjoy pasta in her dozen-plus cookbooks. Penne with cherry tomatoes, basil and mozzarella is a no-cook condiment for pasta that’s perfect for the lazy days of summer. For a juicier taste, she advises using cherry tomatoes sold still on the vine.
Vietnamese beef and noodle salad
Katie Lee, co-host of Food Network’s “The Kitchen,” shares more than 100 recipes in her latest book “Endless Summer Cookbook” (Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 2015), such as this cool and simple-to-make Vietnamese beef and noodle salad bowl. Lee says, “I put all of the items in separate bowls and let people make their own combinations.” Customize your own bowl with beef, noodles, dressing, cucumber, carrots and herbs.
Italy’s two-star Michelin chef Davide Scabin invented “pasta sushi” a few years ago by substituting pasta shells for the white rice, making beautiful, Japanese-inspired but Italian-flavored, one-bite appetizers. Boil the shells, toss with lemon juice and olive oil, and fill with your favorite seafood from simple tuna salad to fancy poached lobster topped with caviar. “I use mono-origin kamut flour pasta, Monograno Felicetti, because it stays firm and tastes great at room temperature,” Scabin says.
Terrific as an appetizer on warm summer nights, set out a variety of fillings — oysters, smoked salmon, minced herbs, cream cheese — and let guests customize their own sushi pasta.
Using ancient grain pasta
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Maria Speck, author of the new “Simply Ancient Grains” and “Ancient Grains for Modern Meals,” was a winner of the Julia Child Award and honored for writing one of the 100 best cookbooks of the past 25 years by Cooking Light. She sings the praises of pasta, noting that “even if your cupboards are bare, you can create an alluring meal in minutes.”
Among the ancient grain pasta she recommends are farro and Kamut pasta.
This luscious no-cook Mediterranean-influenced sauce with thick Greek yogurt, sour cream and tahini is spiced up with red chili pepper, garlic and a sprinkle of aromatic nigella and sesame seeds. Serve it alone with a peppery arugula salad or as a side to grilled steak, burgers, lamb chops or chicken.
Using vegetable extracts
At Milan’s Michelin-star restaurant VUN, chef Andrea Aprea cooks pasta in vegetable extracts. Here it’s red cabbage juice, which produces pasta with a glorious purple color and lovely earthy flavor. It’s topped with creamy burrata cheese for sweet richness, a touch of smoked fish for depth, pine nuts for crunch and watercress for fresh brightness. It’s a thrilling combination of vibrant colors, rich flavors and varied textures.
Joseph Bastianich, television celebrity, restaurant owner, wine expert and son of Lidia Bastianich, teams up with his sister, Tanya Bastianich Manuali, to write “Healthy Pasta: The Sexy, Skinny, and Smart Way to Eat Your Favorite Food.” Try their couscous salad, which is ideal for the summer because it’s light and uses fresh, crunchy, raw summer vegetables. Make it with carrots, celery and peppers, or add your own favorites such as raw sugar snap peas.
Making a healthier pasta
“Lobster and corn is the perfect summer combination, conjuring up visions of New England’s seashore,” say Tanya Bastianich Manuali and Joseph Bastianich, who have created more than 100 recipes each under 500 calories, like this simple-to-make elegant dish. Tanya explains the health benefits to eating pasta cooked just until firm or al dente: “A pasta with bite means you have to chew more, and chewing stimulates your digestive enzymes. More chewing also means a longer and slower eating time, which allows the body to feel satisfied.”
Casarecce with Corn and Lobster
From “Healthy Pasta: The Sexy, Skinny and Smart Way to Eat Your Favorite Food” (Alfred A. Knopf) by Joseph Bastianich and Tanya Bastianich Manuali
Two 1 1/2-pound lobsters will yield about 2 1/2 cups lobster meat. Cooking the pasta in the lobster cooking water will lend a subtle taste of the sea to the dish. You could also add the corn cobs to the cooking water to further incorporate that flavor as well. Casarecce are tube-shaped pasta, rolled like a scroll. You can substitute gemelli.
Yield: 6 servings
2 (1½-pound) lobsters
2 cups low-sodium chicken broth
3 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
2 ounces pancetta, diced
2 celery stalks, chopped (about 1 cup), plus 1/2 cup tender leaves
2 cups chopped scallions
4 ears of corn, kernels removed from the cobs (about 2 cups)
2 teaspoons fresh thyme leaves, chopped
Crushed red pepper flakes
1/2 cup dry white wine
1 pound casarecce
1 cup fresh basil leaves, chopped
1 cup fresh Italian parsley leaves, chopped
1. Bring a very large pot of salted water to a boil. Once it’s boiling, add the lobsters. Cover and boil until the lobsters are cooked through, about 10 to 12 minutes. Rinse under cold water and let cool. Return the water to a boil for the pasta.
2. Remove the tiny legs from the bodies of the lobsters and put them into a small saucepan with the chicken broth. Simmer while you prepare the other ingredients, then strain, discarding the lobster parts.
3. Remove the lobster meat from the tail and large claws and cut into 1/2-inch chunks.
4. In a large skillet over medium heat, add 2 tablespoons of the olive oil. When the oil is hot, add the pancetta and cook until the fat is rendered, about 4 minutes. Add the chopped celery and cook until it begins to soften, about 5 minutes. Add the scallions and cook until wilted, about 3 minutes. Add the corn kernels and toss to coat in the oil. Add the thyme and season with salt and red pepper flakes. Add the white wine, bring to a simmer, and cook until reduced by half, about 3 minutes. Add the strained chicken broth and let simmer while you cook the pasta.
5. Add the casarecce to the lobster cooking water. When the sauce is ready and the pasta is al dente, add the lobster meat, basil and parsley to the sauce. Remove the pasta with a spider or small strainer and add directly to the sauce, reserving the pasta water. Toss to coat the pasta with the sauce, adding a splash of pasta water if the pasta seems dry. Drizzle with the remaining 1 tablespoon olive oil. Serve immediately.
Main photo: Andrew Zimmern takes a simple grilled broccoli rabe, tosses it with cooked pasta and tops it with easy-to-make lemony bread crumbs. Credit: Copyright Madeleine Hill
In times of tragedy, discord or disruption, there is often no more powerful message between neighbors than a shared casserole, a baked banana bread or a well-timed gift of cookies. But a new breed of food entrepreneurs are taking their empathy and altruism global, using food as a catalyst for projects that are changing the world. The idea of being a good neighbor just got a little bigger.
Beth Howard, Ms. American Pie
After the Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings, Beth Howard traveled with more than 60 volunteers to hand out free apple pie in front of the town’s square. Howard, who had been teaching people to make pie for the past decade, had been selling pies out of a stand in front of her home inside the historic American Gothic house in Elton, Iowa, as she grieved the sudden death of her husband. Howard’s memoir, “Making Piece,” chronicled how pie helped her heal.
Now, after the release of her second book, “Ms. American Pie,” Howard is set to take her belief that pie can solve anything global through her World Piece Project. “The idea of pie is not distinctly American,” she said. “Empanadas, samosas — all cultures have some form of filled dough, and everywhere this universal, simple, comforting food is meant to be shared.” Howard will be flying around the world and talking to the world’s best pie makers about nostalgia, love and the feeling of time spent caring for others’ happiness.
Adam Aronovitz and Alissa Bilfield of the Cookbook Project
Adam Aronovitz was working in Boston’s public schools when he got a firsthand look of the effect of diet on children’s ability to learn. If no one at home knew how to cook, he posited, how could children be expected to eat healthy foods? He and co-founder Alissa Bilfield started the nonprofit Cookbook Project to combat the root causes of culinary illiteracy, starting by training school staff with online courses so that they would become food literacy educators, with the goal of teaching children the ways of the kitchen.
“We have a pretty lofty goal,” Aronovitz said. “We want every child to have access to food literacy.” The program, which is seeing its first successes in Boston, where 56 staff at four schools are now trained, is going global. “We see the same issues cropping up with kids abroad,” Aronovitz said. “Even in Hanoi, kids are saying their favorite foods are pizza and friend chicken.”
John Tucker of Dave’s Killer Bread
John Tucker was president of Eugene, Oregon-based So Delicious, a dairy-free food company, when he got the chance to join Dave’s Killer Bread, an Oregon company known for its social activism and GMO-free, whole grain breads. Now, along with a new campaign to take the brand national, Tucker is creating a network of Second Chance employers and sharing knowledge from the company’s years of experience working with former inmates.
One out of every three employees at Dave’s Killer Bread spent time incarcerated in the American penal system. “Former inmates want to be successful in life and are looking for someone who will give them a chance,” Tucker said. The company is currently creating a playbook to share with a network of other businesses, detailing the best practices it has developed to help inmates make the transition back to society. He hopes the playbook will help potential Second Chance employers get past the stigma and presumed risk of hiring former inmates and to allow these businesses to see them as people with potential. “There really is greatness in all of us, and though some of us are called leaders, all of us need to learn how to be leaders in life,” Tucker said.
Shawn Askinosie of Askinosie Chocolate
Defense lawyer Shawn Askinosie was knee-deep in a grueling murder case defending a client pleading an insanity defense when he realized something had to change. “I had given the law and the courtroom some great years of my life, but I knew it was time to move on,” Askinosie said.
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In the five years thereafter, the Missouri-based entrepreneur traveled to Ecuador, Honduras, the Philippines and Tanzania, developing the direct trade relationships that would form the backbone of his company, Askinosie Chocolate.
Today, Askinosie, the only chocolate company in the world doing direct trade with every cocoa-producing continent, employs 15 people, including two of his children. He returns profits to these same farmers in a program he calls “A Stake in the Outcome.” His company feeds 1,600 students in Tanzania with no need for donations. Closer to home, the company’s Chocolate University works in collaboration with Drury University to teach underprivileged children in Springfield, Missouri, about the wider world and the business of producing artisanal chocolate. “Our hope is they will all, in their own way, experience this adventure as a catalyst for their future,” Askinosie said. “We hope it gives them a dimension and a catalyst to whatever career they choose.”
Jennie Dundas and Alexis Gallivan of Blue Marble Ice Cream
For Jennie Dundas and Alexis Gallivan, ice cream tastes even better if the practice of creating it helps the world. In 2007, they launched Blue Marble Ice Cream in Brooklyn, New York, using cream sourced from pasture-raised cows. They developed a line of what they call elemental flavors, selecting ingredients carefully and making classic flavors in addition to offbeat varieties such as Mexican Chocolate and Pumpkin.
But when a woman from Rwanda contacted them about starting something similar in her community, they saw the potential for how ice cream could change the world. They created Blue Marble Dreams, a nonprofit that builds ice cream shops with women in areas recovering from conflict or natural disaster. Rwandans, still recovering from the 1994 genocide, were having trouble reclaiming their happiness or even feeling like they deserved it, Gallivan said. “They wanted to make a place where people could hang their problems at the door.” In 2010, Blue Marble opened its first shop with Ingoma Nshya, a cooperative of women drummers in Butare, Rwanda.
A second outpost will open in Haiti this summer. “Most people there [in Rwanda] had never had anything cold in their mouths before,” Galilvan said. “They’ve really fallen in love with it.”
José Andrés’ World Central Kitchen
World-famous chef José Andrés, whose seminal D.C. restaurant Jaleo helped usher in the Age of Tapas in the United States, visited Haiti after the 2010 earthquake that devastated that country and knew he had to find a way to help. So he launched the World Central Kitchen, based on his experience working with a similar nonprofit, the D.C. Central Kitchen.
“He loved the model of helping people help themselves,” says Kevin Holst, communications director. Today, the World Central Kitchen operates eight projects in three countries, all focused on smart solutions to end poverty and hunger. For Palmiste Tampe, a rural mountain village in Haiti, that means installing a community kitchen and garden attached to the school, which is providing fresh vegetables to the town for the first time. The project has increased school enrollment 135 percent.
“With our model, we aren’t just giving rice and leaving,” Holst said. “If you give rice to people who are hungry, the people who were growing rice are out of business.”
Main photo: Beth Howard is embarking on a round-the-world journey, extending the theme of making and sharing pie with others to make the world a better, happier place. Credit: Copyright 2014 Race Point Publishing
Sancerre’s greatest secret is its red wines made from Pinot Noir.
At the eastern border of France’s Loire Valley, Sancerre is known for its benchmark Sauvignon Blancs, but this was not always the case. Pinot Noir historically covered Sancerre’s hillsides until phylloxera began its devastation of the region’s vines sometime around 1865. (Indeed, it is said the Champenois came here in search of raw material.)
Among the many varieties planted to reconstitute the vineyards, it was Sauvignon Blanc that proved perfectly adapted to the climate and the soils of Sancerre and today accounts for roughly 80% of the volume. Pinot Noir — for either rosé or rouge — makes up the balance.
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Until recently most producers treated their reds pretty much as an afterthought. Now Pinot Noir is getting serious attention. The wines may not yet plumb the depths of, say, Vôsne-Romanée, but the best ought to make Burgundy take notice. Sancerre rouge is getting better every day.
For the most part, these are seductive, light- to medium-bodied reds with vibrant flavors of cherry, plum and strawberry. Bottlings from older vines or prime parcels may be more structured, with hints of sweet spices, black tea and orange zests. They are supremely satisfying and absolute charmers. Most should be drunk slightly chilled.
Listed here are three of my favorite producers. Their grapes grow on one of Sancerre’s three soil types: “white soils,” composed of clay and limestone, also known as Kimmeridgian marl (the same soils as Chablis) on the westernmost hillsides of the zone; pebbly compact limestone, on the slopes and low hills; and flinty clay, or Silex, on the hills at the eastern limits of the appellation. All three vintners harvest by hand, keep yields low, and age their reds, at least in part, in oak barrels.
Domaine Claude & Stéphane Riffault
Thirtysomething Stéphane Riffault is one of my favorite discoveries. After studying viticulture and enology in Beaune, Riffault worked with Olivier Leflaive (Burgundy) and at Chateau Angelus (Saint Emilion) before returning to Sancerre, where he is in the process of converting the family property to organic viticulture. His reds are bottled without filtration.
Riffault’s Pinot Noir comes from a parcel called La Noue which gives its name to his rosé and his red Sancerre. Lovely balance and juicy red fruit characterized the (still too) young 2013. The 2008, however, was cool, silken and fine of grain. Wonderfully fresh, pure and fluid, it had deep flavors of cherry and black tea. (A second bottling, Les Chailloux, is not sold in the United States.)
Domaine Lucien Crochet
Lucien’s son Gilles, a Dijon-trained enologist, has long been one of Sancerre’s best ambassadors, making fine-tuned, concentrated, eco-friendly Sancerres, among them, two Sancerre rouges.
The basic bottling is La Croix du Roy. The 2011 was pale (vintage oblige) with lovely, mingled scents of small red berries. Cool, harmonious and lightly oaky, with a distinctly salty thread, it should be drinking beautifully when it arrives in the United States this fall. The 2010 is limpid and airborne, seasoned with oak, at once delicate and forceful.
Crochet’s Cuvée Prestige rouge is made from the Crochet’s oldest Pinot Noir vines and is produced only in the best vintages, most recently in 2005, 2009 and 2012 (the last won’t be released for another year or two).
The fragrant 2009 was pellucid and firm, a smooth, fresh gourmandise. The vivacious 2005 was similarly delicate but dignified, with rose petal accents, emerging flavors of oak and an appetizing bitter note in the finish.
Domaine Vincent Gaudry
Gaudry’s wines are sui generis … and downright fascinating. Gaudry says he works with his energy and his emotions and is guided by an old vigneron who “speaks the language of energy.” His mentor also provided him with great grapes, to wit, Pinot Fin, a pre-phylloxeric, pre-clonal version of today’s Pinot Noir that the old vintner planted 50 years ago by Selection Massale.
The grapes now make Gaudry’s “Les Garennes,” an unfiltered red, the 2013 of which was utterly seductive, silky, delicate and infinitely nuanced.
With the coarser, ruddier “Pinot Noir” we know today, Gaudry makes Vincengetorix, also unfiltered. The 2009 was dense, pure, cool, and lightly tannic, with flavors of spice and black tea — full of character and mesmerizing.
There are so many wonderful Sancerre rouges and so little space. Herewith, wholehearted recommendations for the following Domaines:
• Francois Crochet
• Pascal & Nicolas Reverdy
• Pierre Morin
• Dominique Roger
• Roblin, Vacheron
• Serge Laloue
Prices range from $22 to $40, and up to $66 for deluxe bottlings. And in case you’re wondering, all these winemakers also make terrific white Sancerres.
For more information about French wines, read “Earthly Delights From The Garden Of France: Wines Of The Loire,” by Jacqueline Friedrich.
Main photo: Harvest time at La Noue vineyard. Credit: Copyright 2015 Denis Bomer
People buy cookbooks for a variety of reasons: to inspire, impress, beautify, edify and love. For famed cookbook author and food writer, Nika (Standen) Hazelton, however, there was only one reason to purchase a cookbook: to cook from it.
The daughter of a German diplomat, Hazelton was born and grew up in Rome. In addition to international travels with her father, she attended the London School of Economics and worked as a reporter in Europe, before marrying and moving to the United States in 1940.
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It was stateside that her cookbook-writing career took off. Esteemed as a specialist of European cookery, she penned cookbooks dedicated to the cuisines of Scandinavia, Switzerland, Belgium, Italy, France, Denmark and Germany. At the time of Hazelton’s death in 1992, Molly O’Neill, food columnist for The New York Times Magazine, declared Hazelton’s “American Home Cooking” (Bobbs Merrill, 1967), “French Home Cooking” (Viking Penguin, 1979), “International Cookbook” (Harper & Row, 1967) and “The Italian Cookbook” (Henry Holt, 1979) standards. Hazelton published 30 cookbooks throughout her career and wrote countless articles for major food magazines and newspapers. No title better communicates her unwaveringly simple, straightforward and unpretentious perspective on food and cooking, however, than her 1974 cookbook, “I Cook As I Please.”
Conceding her “literal mindedness,” Hazelton laid out in a 1963 article in “The New York Times” exactly how one might judge a cookbook to determine whether it is not just delightfully escapist, politically radical or aesthetically pleasing, but well and simply good. Hazelton’s advice rings as true today as it did in the 1960s, at least if you are shopping for a cookbook that aligns with her functional, no-nonsense approach.
Accuracy and clarity
For Hazelton, “Accuracy is the first virtue when writing about cooking.” Recipes ought to list all ingredients at the beginning of the recipe and with accurate measurements. Authors who arrange ingredients “more coyly” do readers a disservice as they forsake clarity. Directions ought to be lucidly written, one step at a time, and in order. If recipes include misspellings or confusing instructions, beware, as these reflect poorly on the author.
Well-written recipes notify the reader of specific details, such as the type of pan, the size of baking dish or whether a dish should be cooked covered or not. Such specifics indicate the thoroughness of the recipe writer’s testing process. A lack of specifics, on the other hand, can reveal a writer’s laziness, an unforgivable failing according to Hazelton.
Recipes ought to turn out if followed correctly and, equally important, to work every time. Since reliability is impossible to blindly predict, Hazelton recommended purchasing cookbooks from only respected authors and publishers, remarking, “Few newcomers to cookbook writing do reliable recipes.”
Hazelton not only firmly asserted that a recipe “should be correct and the best of its kind,” but also that it ought to “promote the cause of good food and not of brand names.” Further condemning the likes of packaged-food cuisine and back-of-the-box recipes, Hazelton believed, “Commercial recipes, however splendid, belong to advertising and publicity.”
Writing in 1963, Hazelton lamented, “Really authentic and first-class foreign cookbooks are few and far between,” as recipes were often revised for American styles, tastes and measurements, losing their magic along the way. Good cookbooks of this sort require time and investment to retest the recipes, but are worth it, processes with which Hazelton had significant experience.
With these strict criteria, Hazelton recommended an elite group of reliable authors. She “saluted” Craig Claiborne, James Beard, Julia Child, Paula Peck, Helen Evans Brown, Dione Lucas, the Chamberlains, Ann Seranne, Marian Tracy, June Platt and John Gould. She also cited the editors of the McCall’s, Ladies Home Journal and Good Housekeeping cookbooks, reasoning that their quality was “reliable if not always inspired, because the editors know their business can’t afford to make their readers mad with poorly done work.”
Main photo: Julia Child, Craig Claiborne and James Beard were among Hazelton’s recommended cookbook authors. Credit: Emily Contois
“Chicken with cheese”: The words conjure up visions of that college-student standby, the fried-chicken melt. But poulet au fromage is something quite different — something elegant and perfectly delicious.
Exemplifying the cookery of early 18th-century France, long before the famous chef Marie-Antoine Carême came along and codified haute cuisine, the recipe appears in “Nouveau Traité de la Cuisine,” Published in the 1740s by a writer who used the pen name Menon. (Note that it wasn’t until the 20th century that chefs regularly began to publish their recipes while they were still fashionable; before then, chefs typically didn’t reveal their secrets until after they’d retired. So published recipes tended to represent the cuisine of an earlier era.)
Haute cuisine standards
Anyway, poulet au fromage is a delightful dish with a family resemblance to the 19th-century haute cuisine standard veal Foyot. In both cases, meat is simmered with broth and white wine and then baked under a covering of Gruyère (or Swiss) cheese; the ingredients meld into a concoction with a savory, sophisticated flavor.
But there are differences (besides the obvious fact that veal Foyot contains veal, which is expensive and troubles some people on ethical grounds). Poulet au fromage includes a substantial amount of herbs, which was more characteristic of French food in the 18th century than it was in the 19th (and is perhaps a little more to our present-day tastes). And it does not include fried minced onions, as veal Foyot does. If you felt like discreetly sprinkling some lightly fried onions on the chicken before adding the final cheese layer, however, I would be willing to close my eyes.
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Menon’s recipe calls for a whole chicken, but the chickens of his day were younger and therefore more tender than those we can conveniently get in our supermarkets. I substitute chicken breast; to make up for the slight loss of flavor due to the absence of bones, I tend to add a bit of bottled chicken base.
Properly, the herbs should be added in the form of a bouquet wrapped in cheesecloth. But if you do that, you have to transfer everything to a saucepan, because in a frying pan the liquid will nowhere near cover the bouquet. It’s therefore more convenient to add all the herbs loose; given that are no other ingredients in the cooking liquid, they’re easy enough to strain out later.
Poulet au Fromage
Prep time: About 20 minutes
Cook time: About 1 1/2 hours
Total time: About 1 hour 50 minutes
Yield: 2 to 3 servings
2 1/2 to 3 pounds chicken breast
2 ounces butter
3/4 cup dry white wine such as Chardonnay or Sauvignon Blanc
1/2 cup chicken broth
3 sprigs parsley
2 shallots, sliced
2 cloves garlic, crushed
3 whole cloves
1 bay leaf
2 small sprigs fresh thyme
3 leaves fresh basil
Salt and pepper
1 pound Swiss or French Gruyère cheese, grated
1. Remove any bones and skin from the breasts, pound them with a kitchen mallet to flatten and cut them into pieces 1 1/2- to 2-inches square. Melt the butter in a large pan and fry the pieces in two batches until lightly browned, about 15 minutes.
2. Add the wine, broth, parsley, shallots, garlic, cloves, bay leaf, thyme and basil along with salt and pepper to taste. Bring the liquid to a boil, reduce the heat and simmer, loosely covered, for 1 hour. Meanwhile, preheat the oven to 475 F.
3. Remove the meat from the pan. Strain the cooking liquid and transfer half of it to a 2-quart casserole or baking dish. Sprinkle with half of the cheese, add the chicken pieces and the rest of the cooking liquid, and top with the remaining cheese. Cover the baking dish tightly and bake until the cheese is entirely melted, 10 to 12 minutes.
4. Raise the temperature to 500 F, remove the cover from the casserole and return to the oven until the cheese has begun turning brown in spots, 5 to 7 minutes.
Main photo: Poulet au fromage. Credit: Charles Perry