The Culture of Food and Drink

Home / Cooking  / Sweet Hindu Offerings Fit For The Gods In India

Sweet Hindu Offerings Fit For The Gods In India

Neyappam prepared in appakara as an offering for the gods in Indian Hindu temples. Credit: R.V. Ramachandran

Neyappam prepared in appakara as an offering for the gods in Indian Hindu temples. Credit: R.V. Ramachandran

Up on a tall peak of the Western Ghats mountain range in India called Sabarimala, a Hindu shrine lures hundreds of thousands of pilgrims from mid- November through the first half of January. The devotees undertake an arduous journey, the final few miles of it barefoot, over a rough and rocky terrain through low-lying fog accompanying a cold season’s chill, to worship at Sabarimala. The temples provide food offerings called neyyappam, made with rice, jaggery (Indian unrefined brown sugar) and cooked in ghee.

With close to 70 million people making the pilgrimage annually, this is one of the largest in the world.  To help make their important offerings, about 4 million neyyappams were sold to pilgrims as Hindu offerings by the end of the first 10 days of the pilgrimage season in 2013.

Sabarimala is one of hundreds of temples all over South India that prepare this sweet dish and several others as offerings. The enshrined deities of the Hindu temples are faithfully fed with formal offerings of food every day. The offerings at temples are always the most excellent food.

The favorite food of the gods

The priests and their helpers prepare them in the temple kitchen. The traditional cooks who prepare them do not follow any written recipes, nor are they trained at any culinary schools. They perfect their art through practice under the watchful eyes of senior priests. But the proof of their culinary skills is in the most delicious prasadam (food that has been offered to God), which devotees receive from the temples.

Those little morsels of prasadam have a very special taste, maybe because visitors receive only a small serving, or maybe because it is the gods’ favorite food. Biting through the dark brown crust, crisped by rice flour and savoring the soft and chewy middle of the neyyappam is sheer delight.

There are no written records of their origin, but sweetened cakes made of grains as Hindu offerings were prevalent since very ancient times in India. Apupa, a prototype of neyyappam, was believed to be a favorite food of the gods and it was offered in various sacrificial ceremonies. In “Food and Drink in Ancient India” Om Prakash writes that apupa possibly was the earliest sweet known in India. Apupa was believed to be a favorite food of the gods and it was offered in various sacrificial ceremonies.

It was made with barley or rice flour cooked in ghee on a low fire and sweetened with honey, and later with sugar cane juice. The cook made apupa assume the shape of a tortoise by cooking it on clay pot with a curved bottom. Even centuries later, the recipe and the method of cooking this ancient dish have remained practically unchanged.

A world of cooking vessels

Neyyappam is traditionally cooked in a bronze pan called appakara, about 8 inches in diameter, with three or more large cavities, giving the dish a tortoise-like shape. Recipes are varied, but sometimes the batter includes a softening agent such as ripe bananas. Sometimes the batter is flavored with coconut, cardamom, sesame seeds, dried ginger or poppy seeds.

Many cuisines use variations on this pan for similar dishes. An ideal substitute for an appakara is the utensil used for making the Danish pancake balls called aebleskiver, the tasty Danish dessert that looks like round puffy pancakes.

The Vikings also originally used damaged shields to cook a similar dish called ebelskivers.

Kevin Crafts, in his cookbook “Ebelskivers,” described: “The invention of ebelskivers is much debated, but one story tells of the Vikings returning very hungry from a fierce battle. With no frying pans on which to cook, they placed their damaged shields over a hot fire and cooked pancakes in the indentations.”

In the absence of these special skillets, neyyappam may be cooked on a griddle or a small skillet.


Makes 12 to 15


1 cup long-grain rice

1 cup jaggery

1 medium-sized ripe banana, peeled and sliced

1 teaspoon cardamom powder (optional)

1 tablespoon thinly sliced coconut pieces (optional)

½ cup ghee, divided


1. Soak the rice in water for two to three hours, and then rinse it in several changes of water until the water runs clear, and drain.

2. In a sauce pan melt the jaggery with ¼ cup of water. Strain through a fine sieve and cool.

3. In a blender, combine the rice, banana, and jaggery with just enough water to grind it into a fine, smooth, thick batter.

4. Stir in the cardamom powder and coconut slices if using. This batter should have the consistency of a thick pancake batter.

5. Heat an aebleskiver pan over medium heat.

6. Pour ½ teaspoon ghee in each cavity of the pan.

7. Pour in the batter, ¾ of the way in each cavity. Pour a ½ teaspoon of ghee on top of each neyyappam and cook over medium heat.

8. When the bottom of the neyyappam is cooked (in a minute or so), turn it over, and cook the other side.

9. When neyyappam turns brown in color, remove from the griddle, and drain on paper towels. Serve warm or at room temperature.

Top photo: Neyyappam prepared in appakara as an offering for the gods in Indian Hindu temples. Credit: R.V. Ramachandran

Zester Daily contributor Ammini Ramachandran is a Texas-based author, freelance writer and culinary educator who specializes in the culture, traditions and cuisine of her home state of Kerala, India. She is the author of "Grains, Greens, and Grated Coconuts: Recipes and Remembrances of a Vegetarian Legacy" (iUniverse 2007), and her website is