Coconut Oil’s Comeback

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Coconut oil’s many health benefits have been eclipsed for decades by fears about saturated fats. But now it’s time for a more sophisticated understanding of the virgin coconut oil’s healthful nature and its indispensable place in southern Indian cooking.

I grew up in a world where coconuts reign supreme; the name of my home state Kerala means “land of coconut palms.” Wherever it is grown around the world, coconut has a long and respected history and all parts of the palm are used in some way or another in the daily life of the people in the coconut-growing areas. It is acclaimed as Kalpavriksha — the all-giving tree in ancient Indian classics.

Coconut oil extracted from the firm white kernel of the mature coconut is an essential ingredient in our cuisine. In addition to its many culinary applications, coconut oil is also widely used in home remedies and in Ayurveda, Indian herbal medicine.

Coconut oil is the most misunderstood of all coconut products; an oil that was used in cooking for thousands of years. Tropical oils were very popular in the U.S. food industry before World War II. It was used quite heavily in this country for baking, frying and even in making popcorn at movie theaters. Coconut palms along Lake Vembanad in Kerala, India.

Everything changed a few decades ago when studies proclaimed that all saturated fats caused high triglyceride counts and raised cholesterol levels. The anti-saturated fat campaign and the promotion of polyunsaturated fats and their partially hydrogenated products destroyed the reputation of all saturated oils in America, especially coconut oil. Sales dwindled and American grocery stores stopped carrying it. I could find it only at Indian grocers, and I saved the precious oil for garnishing aviyal, a vegetable dish that requires coconut oil for its authentic taste.

The chemistry of coconut oil

Several fats in our diet, irrespective of whether they are saturated or unsaturated, or whether they come from plant or animal sources, consist of molecules called fatty acids. One well known system classifies them as saturated, polyunsaturated, or monounsaturated fats. Another system is based on the length of the carbon chain within each fatty acid. This method classifies fatty acids as short-chain, medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids.

The human body metabolizes each fatty acid differently depending on its size. Sixty-five percent of the saturated fat in coconut oil consists of seven types of medium-chain fatty acids. Of these, lauric acid is the most predominant. Medium-chain fatty acids do not circulate in the bloodstream like other fats, but are metabolized rapidly and converted into energy rather than stored as body fat. Research shows the human body also converts lauric acid to a fatty acid derivative that protects the body from viral and bacterial infections. The only other good source of lauric acid is mother’s milk.

Although it is high in saturated fat, coconut oil also contains heart-healthy polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats important for overall growth and development. The monounsaturated fat in coconut oil is made entirely of oleic acid, a component believed to possess the anti-cancer benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. The polyunsaturated fat content of coconut oil is linoleic acid, an essential omega-6 fatty acid.

Myths and truths

Old studies on coconut oil used the highly processed hydrogenated coconut oil. All hydrogenated oils, whether they are saturated or not, contain trans-fatty acids that have been altered from their original chemical composition, and they raise cholesterol levels that lead to heart disease. Recent research shows that it is the presence of trans-fatty acids in oils resulting from hydrogenation that causes health problems.

The saturated fat in coconut oil prevents it from easily oxidizing. It can withstand high temperatures. Medium-chain fatty acids in unrefined coconut oil do not easily turn into trans-fatty acids when heated, which makes it a stable oil to cook with. Coconuts can add flavor, variety and nutrients to your diet. All of these qualities make it ideal for baking, cooking, frying and stir-frying. Coconut oil remains a clear liquid above 75 F. Below this temperature,  it will be a solid fat. It can be liquefied easily by heating. Studies have shown that an intake of approximately 2 tablespoons of coconut oil per day is a healthy dose.

Today high-quality virgin coconut oil is considered one of the healthiest oils free of trans-fatty acids and is gaining popularity as a nourishing fat among health-conscious consumers. “Virgin coconut oil has a haunting, nutty, vanilla flavor. It’s even milder and richer tasting than butter, sweeter and lighter textured than lard, and without any of the bitterness of olive oil” wrote Melissa Clark in her article on coconut oil in The New York Times.

When buying, it is important to note that coconut oils on the market vary drastically in terms of quality. Choose a good quality virgin coconut oil and use it in moderation. Low-quality coconut oils are processed by chemical extraction using solvent extracts. This method is quicker, produces higher yields, and is less expensive. These oils may contain chemical residues and some are also hydrogenated, bleached and deodorized, which makes it unhealthy. Look for unrefined virgin coconut oil, and it is better to stay away from all hydrogenated oils, whether it is from plant or animal source.

One southern Indian favorite that relies on coconut oil’s goodness is a type of coleslaw called cabbage thoran. Pale green leaves of cabbage blend perfectly with coconut oil and curry leaves to make this tasty side dish.

Cabbage Thoran, a southern Indian cole slaw recipe

Cabbage Thoran: Pan-Fried Cabbage With Curry Leaves and Coconut

Ingredients

1 small green cabbage
2 fresh green chilies (Serrano or Thai) (less for a milder taste)
Salt to taste
½ teaspoon turmeric
1½ tablespoon coconut oil
1 teaspoon mustard seeds
1 teaspoon each urad dal and chana dal (optional)
12 to 15 fresh curry leaves
½ cup freshly grated coconut

Directions

1. Cut the cabbage in half, and cut out the thick core in the middle. Shred the leaves as you would for coleslaw.
2. Place the shredded cabbage in a colander, and wash under running water, then drain.
3. Cut the green chilies into thin strips, and combine them with the cabbage.
4. Sprinkle salt and turmeric over the shredded cabbage, and mix well.
5. Heat coconut oil in a heavy, large skillet and add the mustard seeds. When the mustard seeds start sputtering, add the dals (if using — they give nutty crunch to the dish), and curry leaves, and fry until the dals turn golden.
6. Add the cabbage to the skillet. Mix well, and reduce the heat to low.
7. Sprinkle a tablespoon of water over the cabbage, stir, and cover the skillet.
8. Remove the cover after two minutes, and stir gently.
9. Cook the cabbage for five to eight minutes, stirring occasionally.
10. When the cabbage is well cooked, sprinkle grated coconut on top and stir gently. Serve warm.

Zester Daily contributor Ammini Ramachandran is a Texas-based author, freelance writer and culinary educator who specializes in the culture, traditions and cuisine of her home state Kerala, India. She is the author of “Grains, Greens, and Grated Coconuts: Recipes and Remembrances of a Vegetarian Legacy” (iUniverse 2007), and her website is www.peppertrail.com.

Photos, from top:

Coconut oil, solid and liquid.

Coconut palms along Lake Vembanad in Kerala, India.

Cabbage Thoran.

Credits: R.V. Ramachandran.

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Comments

Dave Robinson
on: 8/25/12
I've been tking 2 tablespoons of coconut oil for over 40 years and I have no wrinkles or crow feet. Just around the corner from 80. Regular bowel movements. After WWII, soybean oil became popular because it was produced in the USA. Coconut oil will turn into a solid when its temperature goes BELOW 79 degrees F. The people who produced soybean oil took advantage of this in their ads. Look they said "Does this look like lard?" I also use coconut oil as a hair conditioner---twice a week put it on for 20 minutes before shampoo. Massage your face before bed and leave on, It will not soil your bedding.
pat
on: 8/26/12
use it instead of butter when making medical marijuana butter
cygon
on: 8/26/12
we only used coconut oil in my country once upon a time. all the women had hourglass figures (tiny , tiny waists). hardly anyone was overweight. now I live in another country and espite trying very hard to watch my diet, my waistline has completely disappeared. Even when I lose weight, the gut remains...
Ammini Ramachandran
on: 8/28/12
So glad to read about your experiences with coconut oil. I too use it everyday in my cooking.
K S Bhat
on: 8/29/12
Every lab test is done in isolation; whereas the product is not consumed in isolation (alone). This is the case with coconut oil too. It is the lobby of US oil makers that made coconut oil untouchable. May be, our elders were right - eat what the nature gives. In this part of the world (south India) it is coconut and groundnut which are grown in plenty and oil is extracted. The oil suits the climate. And, we use coconut in our curries in plenty. Again, the spices that do into the making of the curry balance whatever fat is there in coconut. Couple of decades back, it was told that palm oil was most suitable for health; whereas after a few years, came the report that it was not good for health. One reason that is given is that these oils - palm and coconut - solidify at room temperatures and it is told that because of this characteristic, these oils are not healthy. How comes, is human body a freezer or does it have a temperature level? Tragedy is that no publicity is given to the goodness of coconut.
Vivian Attah
on: 8/29/12
Very interesting to know that God had endowed developing countries with lots of plants, fruits, seeds, etc. that will ensure healthy living of their citizens. Unfortunately, we are abandoning the good foods and eating habits for food items from the West that have the tendency of reducing our life spans. Rediscovering the potential of our local foods should be the concern for all.

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